Why are some people addicts and others are not? We still don’t know. But if you suspect someone you care about is hiding a drug or alcohol habit, this article will help educate you on the facts about addiction and guide you through how to identify the signs of substance abuse. Plus, we invite your questions about possible addiction at the end. We try to answer all legitimate queries with a personal and prompt response, so don’t be shy!
How to identify a substance addiction
You are likely to notice when someone you care about unexpectedly displays changes in appearance and behavior, especially when the changes begin to negatively impact your relationship with that person. Without knowing it, you may be witnessing the onset of substance addiction, but, to be certain, you’ll need to learn how to spot the signs.
What constitutes an addiction?
According to modern diagnostic practice and cognitive neuroscience, addiction is “a compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance characterized by tolerance and by well-defined physiological symptoms upon withdrawal.” In order for an individual’s behavior to be considered an addiction, two unique factors must be present:
1. The behavior is maladaptive or counter–productive, and undermines the person’s ability to function as he or she normally would in daily life.
2. The behavior is persistent, or occurs frequently enough to continually engage the person.
In recent years, professionals in the medical and science fields have categorized addiction as a brain disease because of its similarity to other mental illnesses, like depression, in the way it instills distinct brain changes. In fact, with chronic drug use brain function changes over time. Addiction is a real medical disorder that affects the brain, but also like depression, it can be treated effectively.
What are the noticeable warning signs of substance addiction?
Some symptoms or side effects of addiction can be subtle and easier for a person to hide. Other signs are quite obvious, especially as the addiction advances and the addict grows less self-conscious. Warning signs of addiction can be categorized three ways:
Physical warning signs:
- bloodshot eyes
- changes in appetite – weight loss or weight gain
- deterioration in physical appearance, personal grooming habits, or hygiene
- drastic shifts in sleep pattern
- persistent coughs or sniffles
- pupils are larger or smaller than usual
- tremors, slurred speech, or impaired coordination
- unusual odors on the breath, body, or clothing
Behavioral warning signs:
- changes in friends or hobbies
- drop in attendance/participation at school/work
- financial problems, possibly accompanied by stealing
- frequently getting into trouble – fights, accidents, illegal activities
- repeated unexplained outings, often with a sense of urgency
- secretive, lying
Psychological warning signs:
- appearing fearful, anxious, or paranoid without reason
- appearing lethargic or “spaced out”
- changes in energy – suddenly and extremely tired or energetic
- changes in personality or attitude
- lack of motivation
- sudden mood swings, angry outbursts
Keep in mind that you will need to see multiple warning signs occur simultaneously and repeatedly in order to identify the likelihood that someone has an addiction. Someone you care about who experiences a rough day or two and displays changes in appearance or behavior may not be an addict, but close observation of that person on your part may be helpful in detecting addiction early in its onset.
What are some examples of addictive substances?
Addictive substances come in many forms and have a variety of side effects. With a few exceptions, most of the substances listed below are closely regulated, meaning users can only obtain them by verifying their age, with a healthcare provider’s prescription, or illegally.
Alcohol:beer, wine, liquor
Amphetamines: speed, crystal meth
Benzodiazepines: Xanax, Valium
Caffeine: coffee, tea, sports drinks, soda
Cannabis: marijuana, grass, hash
Cocaine: coke, crack
Hallucinogens: acid, ecstasy, mushrooms
Inhalants: poppers, aerosols
Nicotine: cigarettes, cigars, nicotine patches
Opioids: heroin, morphine, painkillers
Phencyclidine (PCP): angel dust, ketamine
Sedatives: sleeping pills, downers
Suspicious-looking pills, powders, or liquids discovered amongst a loved one’s personal belongings, or any drug paraphernalia (such as syringes, scorched spoons, smoke pipes, or rolled-up dollar bills) may indicate that addictive substances are being used.
What are common factors that lead to addiction?
One way to identify if someone you know has an addiction is to consider certain factors in that person’s life that are commonly known to contribute to addictive behavior. A person’s background or current environment can influence the onset of addiction. Some factors to consider include:
- Abuse, neglect, or other traumatic experiences
- Family history of addiction
- Mental disorders (depression, anxiety, etc.)
- Noticeable increase in use of substances
- Reliance – believing a substance fulfills a “valuable need” or fills a void
An individual is not required to have any of these factors to become an addict, but someone living with any of these factors is at a higher risk of acquiring a substance addiction than a person not living with these factors.
Next step: getting help for someone with a substance addiction
By now, you should have a better understanding of which signs to look for that likely indicate someone you know is living with an addiction. The next steps you choose to take, however, will be critical in helping your loved one receive the help needed to redirect him or her away from a destructive life path. The role you play in an addict’s recovery will not be easy, but strategies and support are available to help you through the crucial processes that lead to recovery. You are not alone.
Watch for our next article, How to Help Someone with a Substance Addiction, which will outline important dos’ and don’ts for approaching a loved one struggling with addiction and the steps you can take through an intervention to help that person recover.